ARTICULATION

 

 

 

Sound Development Chart

The Link above is a sound development chart which provides you with the typical age children begin to say each sound in English and the typical age children are when they master the sound.

 Parents often ask me questions regarding speech intelligibility…..this refers to how clear a child is when communicating.  Young children under three years of age often are not clear when they say words.  You may hear young children say: wed for red and baftub for bathtub…..it is typical for young children to mis-articulate sounds and words.  The chart below tells how intelligible a child is expected to be from 18 months to three years of age.  Please keep in mind (and refer to the chart above), that some sounds are not mastered until almost 8 years of age!  For example the th sound in bathtub is a sound that we give children up until 8 to produce clearly.  Our once babysitter and friend (now just friend), Catherine, was called Cafrine for many years by my own children.  Even as a speech and language pathologist I never corrected their verbal production….because I knew that it is a sound that they developmentally are not ready to produce.  Just like we do not expect a 6 month old baby to walk. Developmentally, 6 month old babies are not capable of walking.  Be sure to keep that in mind when you are thinking of the expectations of your little one’s speech development.

 

 

SOUND DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN…..a little bit more parent friendly….

Parents will often ask me questions about sound acquisition.  This refers to the actual order of sound development.  Parents are curious to know when their little one should be producing a certain sound.  They also want to know if and when they should be worried with regard to a sound their child is mis-articulating.  For example, if your little one is three and she is struggling to make the TH sound….most likely she substitutes: F……not to worry….we give kids up until 8 to master this sound.  There are children that go to kindergarten saying: “I took a baf last night.”  This is typical.

Below is a parent friendly chart….I thought it would be easy to make a chart….indicating all of the sounds in English and the order of sound acquisition.

There are three rows listed below….the first row indicates sounds that are mastered first….the second row are sounds that would follow the sounds in the first row…and of course the sounds in the third row are the more difficult sounds in English and are mastered last….with TH being the last sound on the chart.

If your child is having speech concerns….look at this chart…print it…and circle the sounds she is having trouble with.  This will give you a good starting point when working with your little one.  Once you have decided the sound you are going to work on with your little one…use the strategies below to help your little one become a better communicator.  If you need help in deciding which sound to start off with…please post a reply and I would be happy to help.

 

 

ORDER OF SOUND ACQUISITION:

 

P        B      M          H        W          Y         D         N

 

T       K         G     NG(ng as in sing)      F        V     CH        J

 

L            R        S          Z           SH             TH

 

Sound development in children

I thought the information below was very helpful.  Especially in reference to the acquisition of clusters:

 

The following information cited from:

http://www.cde.state.co.us/cdesped/download/pdf/SLI_ArticulationPhonologyScale.pdf

Recommended Acquisition (Mastery 90% of Population) of Sound Classes  (ages 3 to 8)

(Based on Smit, Hand, Freilinger, Bernthal, & Bird, 1990; Sander, 1972; McLeod, van Doorm & Reid, 2001))

 

The following information is the ages at which 90% of children have productive use of  the sounds in words.

 

Nasals                                                                                                Emergence

/m/   3:0 /n/ 3:6 female; 3:0 male                                              before 2:0

/ ŋ/   7:0-9:0                                                                                    2:0

 

 

Stops

/p, b/   3:0                                                                                        before 2:0

/t/   4:0 female; 3:6 male                                                               2:0

/d/   3:0 female; 3:6 male                                                              2:0

/k/   3:6                                                                                            2:0

/g/   3:6 female; 4:0 male                                                              2:0

 

 

Fricatives and Affricates

/h, w/   3:0                                                                                    before 2:0

/f,/   3:6                                                                                         2:5

/v/   5:6                                                                                         4:0

/ θ/  6:0 female; 8:0 male                                                         4:5

/ ð/  4:6 female; 7:0 male                                                         5:0

/s, z/  7:0-9:0* (*Distortions)                                                  3:0, 3:5

/ ʃ, tʃ, dʒ/  6:0 female; 7:0 male                                               3:5

 

 

Glides and Liquids

/j/    4:0 female; 5:0 male                                                           4:0

/l/  5:0 female; 6:0 male                                                             3:0

/r/  8:0                                                                                           3:0

 

Clusters­Word Initial

/tw, kw/  4:0 female; 5:6 male                                                  3:6

/pl, bl, kl, gl, fl/  5:6 female; 6:0 male                                       4:0- 5-6

/sp, st, sk, sl/  7:0-9:0                                                                4:0-5:0

/sm, sn, sw/   7:0-9:0                                                                4:6-5:6

/skw, spl, spr, str, skr/7:0-9:0                                                 4:6-8:0

/ θr/  9:0                                                                                      7:0

Your child’s speech intelligibility

Please click on Caroline Bowen’s link in reference to speech intelligibility.  Thank you Caroline for allowing me to copy the link here.

 

 

 

 HOW TO TEACH THE M SOUND:

 

M is a bilabial sound-which means that your two lips come together.  M also is one of the three nasal sounds (which means that the air escapes out of your nose not out of your mouth).  M is one of the earliest sounds that children will acquire…..I guess that’s why we are called “mommy or mom or mama”-it’s easy to say!

 

Tactile Cue:

To help elicit this sound you can have your child feel the vibration M makes on your lips.  Have your child place her hands on your lips….and ask her if she feels the vibration M makes.  Next you can help her obtain lip closure (two lips together) by using your thumb and pointer finger to close her upper and lower lip.  Once she has her lips in the right placement,  take her hand again and place it on your lips,  you make the M sound…..and stretch the sound out….meaning make it continue…..next see if she can make it also.  Giving her the tactile cue (feeling the sound), helping her with placement of her lips by using your thumb and pointer and modeling (saying) the sound for her will help her to say the M sound.

Next be sure to try in syllables such as:  mama, mimi, meme, momo, mumu.  Then try in easy words such as: me, my, moo (cow sound).  Next in short phrases: Mom is nice.  Moo says a cow.  Remember to try and put the target word first….this makes it less challenging while your little one is mastering the sound.  Finally, into longer sentences.

Visual Cue/Physical Cue:

One last tip……to show her that M is a sound that continues like S….show her this: with your hands palm down on your lap…..move your hands down your thighs until you reach your knees.  As you are doing this….produce the M sound.  This visual cue shows her that M is a sound that continues.

 

Click on this link for M worksheet…these are M words in the initial position. INITIALMWORDS

 

Remember to follow the articulation process as indicated below:

1. Start off with the word in isolation-that means all by itself

2. Next word in short phrases.

3. Word in sentences.

4. Word in longer sentences.

5. Now try in conversation.

 

 

 

 

HOW TO TEACH THE R SOUND

 

Last week when I was doing an evaluation….the sibling of the child I was evaluating walked in the room…and instantly I could hear the difficulty he had with the R sound.  Parents will often say to me that they feel like their little one’s speech is “babyish“or that she is “mumbling” or that she sounds as if she has an “accent“.  When I hear that I am pretty confident that the issue is with the R sound.

As a speech and language pathologist….since 1993….it is pretty fair to say that R seems to be one of the most difficult sounds to remediate.  I find it challenging because it is hard for the little ones to see what they have to do with their tongue.  When I work on the B sound…the little ones are able to see that my two lips are closing…however…with R…it is more difficult…because they can not see what I am doing with my tongue.

R is definitely one of the more difficult sounds to produce in English…and there are 21 variations of R!….so sound production for R becomes even more of a challenge.

I have included a link below to a great website…so if your child is having difficulty with R please click on the link below for lots of information and resources that can help you help your little one.

I thought, though, that I would write a post regarding one of the variations of R…it is a variation that I was working on just today with one of the little ones that I see.  She is just a delicious little girl…with an incredible personality…she makes my job so much fun…and I told her mom today….how much I learn just by working with her daughter.  So thank you to the delicious little one that I am so lucky to work with.

Today’s post…..followed after the link below….is in reference to R as heard in a word such as EAR.

 

Here is the website and link: www.sayitright.org

The Entire World of R™ approach is to evaluate and treat /r/ phonologically, based on word position and individual sound. Phonetically, /r/ has 8 distinct vocalic variations:
/ar/, /air/, /ear/, /ire/, /or/, /er/,
/rl/, and prevocalic /r/. Separated further by initial, medial, and final word positions, there are 21 different types of /r/ in total.

R AS HEARD IN THE WORD:  EAR

I like to start off the session talking about the hard palate…where it is….at the top of your mouth…and having the little one feel the palate with her pointer finger.  I explain that when she makes the R sound…her tongue should touch her hard palate.  Often times with R (not all of the time…remember there are 21 variations of R)….the child is not touching the palate at all.  So I explain to her that her tongue needs to touch her palate. 

EXTRA TIP:

To give her a visual cue so she understands what her tongue is doing…I use a physical cue with my hand and fist.  I stretch out my hand in front of me…make a fist…and then move my arm and fist towards my body.  This cue is showing her that her tongue needs to do two things: move up and move back.  I explain that my arm is doing just what I want my tongue to do…and I have the little ones watch while I move my arm up and back towards my body.

 

How to help with accurate placement of tongue for R:

In order to help get the tongue in the right position for the R sound…I try and shape the E sound into the R sound.  The cue below is the cue I use to help elicit E.   I do NOT use a rubber band…rather I start my fingers together (so the pointer and thumb of my left hand and the pointer and thumb of my right hand would be touching each other)….then I stretch them out…just as you would stretch out the rubber band.  This is showing your little one that E is a long sound that continues.

So using the E sound should help shape the R sound.

 Cue for E sound (which will help shape the R sound):

 

Visual/Physical Cue:

One of the ABA teachers I work with called this the “taffy” cue……so imagine that you are holding a piece of taffy between your hands….held together by your pointer fingers and thumbs…..then you are going to pull the taffy apart…..stretching your fingers/hands apart…..the picture above is the best one I could find to give you the visual cue…..remember to start at midline(the middle of your body) with both hands together….only pointer and thumbs touching…..then as you stretch your fingers out….make the E sound…..you should stretch to the length of your shoulders.

 

Now…once you stretch out the E…stop the stretch and point both pointer fingers up .  I use this cue to help the little ones know that there tongue has to go up and touch the palate.

 

This is a great exercise to help your little one produce this variation of R.

I practice this variation in words and made up words as follows:

dear

fear

gear

hear

jeer

keer

leer

mere

near

pier

rear

sear

tear

veer

weer

year

zeer

When working on this sound….I would first practice with just the sound….so therapy would look like this: 

Work on stretching out the E sound…using the taffy cue…and then move tongue back (you do not have to lift the tongue up…it is already up! that’s why we say the E sound first..it will help with production of R)… now as you move the tongue back be sure to put your two pointer fingers up…and ending with the R sound. 

*** Practice roaring like a lion…..pretend to be a pirate: Arrr…or race cars and say: Vroom.  These are fun ways to help your little one move her tongue up and back.

 

After you have practiced just the sound…use the word list above and practice the words.

Then the words in phrases…then sentences…longer sentences and finally in conversation.

 

One last tip…please go to www.speechbuddy.com.  They sell a tool that helps with the correct placement of R.  The little girl I was referring to above….her mom will be buying her one…so once I have used it I can give you more information on how successful I think it is for tongue placement.  When you go to the site..you will be able to search for the tool that helps with the R sound.

I will be sure to go through the other variations of R…please post with any questions.

 

 

 

 

 

HOW TO TEACH THE K SOUND

 

The K sound is a stop sound that is made in the back of your throat.  It is a un-voiced sound…which means that your motor is off…this mean that your vocal folds do NOT move or vibrate.  When you make the K sound your tongue retracts to the back of your throat and touches your soft palate (where is your soft palate?…..you know the little thing that hangs in the back of your throat…that’s your uvula..and your uvula is attached to your soft palate).

Often times when children have difficulty with the  K sound they also have difficulty with the G sound.  Why??  Because both K and G are stop sounds that are both produced in the back of the throat with the retraction of the tongue to the soft palate .  So the K and G sounds are both velar sounds (velar or velum is another word for soft palate) that stop.

So…what is the difference between the two…when you make the G sound your vocal folds move…when you make the K sound they do not move.  So the K sound is a motor off sound and the G sound is the motor on sound.

 

Can’t say the K or G sound:

Typically when children can’t produce the K  sound they will substitute the T sound.  When they can not produce the G sound they will typically say the D sound.  Now I find this particularly cool…because D is a voiced sound just like G and T is the unvoiced sound just like K.  How amazing is it that when children substitute a sound for another…they typically replace it with a sound that is similar with regard to voiced and unvoiced.  Also amazing to me is that most kids that can’t make the K sound…substitute it with the T sound…and typically most kids substitute the D sound for G.

 

HOW TO TEACH THE K SOUND:

Physical Cue/Visual Cue:

I’m trying to find a good visual picture to describe this physical action….but have not found one yet.  So I am going to do my best to describe how to use the physical cue.  First….pretend you are doing the hand movement for a choo-choo train (but do not call it the choo-choo sound because you may confuse her and make her think that you are working on the production of the CH sound).  Okay….so back to the position of your arm and fist……remember the hand movement for choo-choo train: You know with your fist in the air….and then you move your arm up and down.  Well…keep the same position with your arm and fist…however….move your elbow back and down behind your body.  I apologize if this description does not make sense…I will work on getting a picture included.  Anyway…the goal of this cue is to show that your tongue is going back in your mouth…to the back of your throat….just like your arm is going back and down.  You will use this cue while saying the K sound.

 

Get your mouth ready:

Okay….so you have shown her the physical cue…but now what…how do you get your little one to get her mouth in the correct position.  Especially if she is making the T sound for K….because when she makes the T sound instead……her tongue has not been retracting to the soft palate…instead it has been moving forward to the bumpy spot (the alveolar ridge) that is right behind the teeth.  So what can you do….

1. Tell her to open her mouth wide

2. Tell her to say ahhhhhhhhh

3. Then practice the K sound…..i often exagerate the K sound….so it may sound something like this: Kaaaaaaaaaaa

 

Tip:

If she is really struggling to get her tongue in the correct position…lie down on the floor….on your back and practice saying ahhhhhh…..and then try making the K sound.  Why?  Because in this position your tongue naturally moves to the back of the throat….and this may make it a bit easier.  You even can use the physical cue…a little awkward due to position…but it can be done.

 

 

REMEMBER TO FOLLOW THE ORDER OF ARTICULATION PROCESS:

Once she is able to make the sound in isolation…the K sound all by itself…

practice in syllables such as:

Ka, ka,ka

Ke, ke, ke

Ki, ki, ki

Ko, ko, ko

Ku, ku, ku

 

Then in words

Then in short phrases

 Then in sentences

Then in longer sentences

Finally in conversation.

 

 

******THE ONLY DIFFERENCE BETWEEN K AND G IS THIS: YOU WILL NOT HAVE YOUR LITTLE ONE FEEL THE BACK OF YOUR THROAT TO FEEL THE VIBRATION.   WHY?  BECAUSE K IS A MOTOR OFF SOUND.  YOUR VOCAL FOLDS ARE NOT MOVING.   K IS A MOTOR OFF SOUND.

K IN THE INITIAL POSITION WORKSHEET: INITIALKWORDS

 

 

 

 

 

 

HOW TO TEACH THE G SOUND

 How to teach  the G sound?   This post is about the G sound….but I like to always tell parents that when a little one has trouble with the G sound….most likely they also will have difficulty with the K sound.  The K sound is very similar to the G sound.  Both sounds are made in the back of the throat….by moving the velum (soft palate).  Both sounds are considered to be velar sounds for that reason.  A velar sound is a sound that is made by moving the soft palate.

So K and G are both velar sounds…..and they are both Stop sounds.  Remember a stop sound is a sound that does not continue…. a sound that does continue, for example, is the  S sound.

K and G, then, are both velar-stop sounds.  So…..what is the difference between K and G?  Very simple….when you make the K sound your vocal folds do not move….so your motor is off.  When you make the G sound…your vocal folds do vibrate….so your motor is on.

The G sound is a stop sound that is made in the back of your throat.  It is a voiced sound…motor on…which means that your vocal folds move or vibrate.  When you make the G sound your tongue retracts to the back of your throat and touches your soft palate(where is your soft palate?…..you know the little thing that hangs in the back of your throat…that’s your uvula..and your uvula is attached to your soft palate).

Often times when children have difficulty with the  G sound they also have difficulty with the K sound.  Why??  Because both K and G are stop sounds that are both produced in the back of the throat with the retraction of the tongue to the soft palate .  So the K and G sounds are both velar sounds (velar or velum is another word for soft palate) that stop.  As I said above…when you make the G sound your vocal folds move…when you make the K sound they do not move.  So the K sound is a motor off sound and the G sound is the motor on sound.

 

Can’t say the K or G sound:

Typically when children can’t produce the K  sound they will substitute the T sound.  When they can not produce the G sound they will typically say the D sound.  Now I find this particularly cool…because D is a voiced sound just like G and T is the unvoiced sound just like K.  How amazing is it that when children substitute a sound for another…they typically replace it with a sound that is similar with regard to voiced and unvoiced.  Also amazing to me is that most kids that can’t make the K sound…substitute it with the T sound…and typically most kids substitute the D sound for G.

 

HOW TO TEACH THE G SOUND:

 

 

Physical Cue/Visual Cue:

I’m trying to find a good visual picture to describe this physical action….but have not found one yet.  So I am going to do my best to describe how to use the physical cue.  First….pretend you are doing the hand movement for a choo-choo train (but do not call it the choo-choo sound because you may confuse her and make her think that you are working on the production of the CH sound).  Okay….so back to the position of your arm and fist……remember the hand movement for choo-choo train: You know with your fist in the air….and then you move your arm up and down.  Well…keep the same position with your arm and fist…however….move your elbow back and down behind your body.  I apologize if this description does not make sense…I will work on getting a picture included.  Anyway…the goal of this cue is to show that your tongue is going back in your mouth…to the back of your throat….just like your arm is going back and down.  You will use this cue while saying the G sound.

Tactile Cue:

Since G is a vibrating sound you can have your little one feel the vibration on the back of your throat.  This cue will let her know that when you make the G sound your motor is on.  You can use the physical cue above (and have her do the physical cue as well) while she is feeling the vibration on the back of your throat.

Get your mouth ready:

Okay….so you have shown her the physical cue…and she felt the vibration…but now what…how do you get your little one to get her mouth in the correct position.  Especially if she is making the D sound for G….because when she makes the D sound instead……her tongue has not been retracting to the soft palate…instead it has been moving forward to the bumpy spot (the alveolar ridge) that is right behind the teeth.  So what can you do….

1. Tell her to open her mouth wide

2. Tell her to say ahhhhhhhhh

3. Then practice the G sound

 

Tip:

If she is really struggling to get her tongue in the correct position…lie down on the floor….on your back and practice saying ahhhhhh…..and then try making the G sound.  Why?  Because in this position your tongue naturally moves to the back of the throat….and this may make it a bit easier.  You even can use the physical cue…a little awkward due to position…but it can be done.

Once she is able to make the sound in isolation…the G sound all by itself…follow the order of articulation below:

 

ORDER OF ARTICULATION:

Practice in syllables such as:

Ga, ga,ga

Ge, ge, ge

Gi, gi, gi

Go, go, go

Gu, gu, gu

 

Then in single words

Then in short phrases

Then in sentences

Next in longer sentences

Finally  in conversation.

 

Click on this link for “G IN INITIAL POSITION WORKSHEET”. 

Remember to follow the order of articulation process…after the sound is mastered in isolation…practice in syllables…..then the word in isolation….then the word in a phrase….then a sentence…then a longer sentence….then in conversation.  INITIALGWORDS

 

 

 

 

 

How to teach the CH sound

 

 

 

 

Phonetically….this is how we write the CH sound: .    It is considered to be a post-alveolar affricate…or a lingua-alveolar…or a lingua-palatal voiceless (motor off) affricate.  Remember that the motor off sound means that your vocal folds are not vibrating during production of the CH sound.

Quick tip:  When I tell a child that we are working on the Choo-choo sound…sometimes that is enough to help them to coordinate to make the CH sound.  I may only hear the sound in isolation once or twice…..however…it is a good starting point…and helps the little one to understand what the CH sound….sounds like.  My next quick tip…I think works best of all with the CH sound…..pretend to sneeze……Ah–Chooooooo!   Most little ones can pretend to sneeze….and just by doing this you are helping them to understand what the CH sound…..sounds like.

The CH sound is comprised of both the T sound and the SH sound.  The position of the tongue for this sound is essentially that for the SH sound….with some minor differences.  The CH sound is produced with a single impulse of breath…even though it includes components of both the T sound and the SH sound.

This sound is one of the later developing sounds….you may hear children at around three and a half producing this sound correctly….however….some children need up until about 7 to master this sound completely.   I have a three-year old now that I am seeing for therapy…purely for incorrect production of diphthongs…..and we do address this sound as well…..WHY….because she is able to make both the T sound and the SH sound…..and when given the correct strategies she is successful with the CH sound.  Be sure to have your licensed speech and language pathologist help you decide what sounds your little one will start off with…..and when you may work on a later sound developing sound.

Well if you are ready to address the CH sound….follow the strategies below.

 

 

VISUAL CUE/PHYSICAL CUE: 

The visual/physical cue that I use for T…..I will post here so you do not have to go back to strategies for T…..is used in conjunction with the visual/physical cue for SH.  As I said above the CH sound is comprised of the T sound and the SH sound…so it would make sense that you would use both the cue for T and the cue for SH.

The cue is very simple…..just touch your pointer finger and thumb together as you are making the T sound……you are showing your little one that their tongue is making closure and touching the bumpy spot behind their teeth. 

 

 

Now for the next part of the cue….bring your index finger up to your lips…and say SHHHH

 

 

The cool thing about this sound is that when you make the T sound…and quickly follow it by the SH sound…..you actually make the CH sound…try it!   So when working with your little one….have her practice the T sound….then the SH sound….continue to have her say T then SH…..THEN….continue to do so….saying it faster every time you say T and then SH…..eventually….your little one will make the CH sound!

Now once you have heard the CH sound (as she is saying the T then SH)….have her try to say the CH sound in isolation (all by itself)….when I say the CH sound…in isolation…I move my arm up-and-down…making the choo-choo train movement….if that sounds familiar….that cue alone…usually is enough to help your little one with production of the sound.

 

Ch words in the initial position worksheet: INITIALCHWORDS

Once she is able to produce the sound in isolation….remember to follow the articulation order:

1. Syllables: the easiest way to remember this is to think of all of the vowels: A E I O U

and have your child practice the CH sound followed by the vowels.  So it would look something like this:

Cha, cha, cha

Chee, chee, chee

Chi, chi, chi

Cho, cho, cho

Chu, chu, chu

2. Short Phrases

3. Sentences

4. Longer Sentences

5. Conversation

 

 

 

HOW TO TEACH THE P SOUND:

Emerges before 2 years of age

Typically mastered by girls and boys by 3 years of age

 

The P sound is considered to be a bilabial sound.  This means that you are using your lips together to make this sound.  It is an unvoiced sound, which means that your vocal folds do not vibrate/move when you make this sound.

Visual Cue/Physical Cue:

To help your child produce this bilabial sound it is good to give her a visual cue/physical.  Which means that you are showing her what the sound “looks like” or the type of sound it is.  By this I mean……I like to teach children to understand the difference between a short sound that stops (like the P sound), a long sound that continues (like the S sound) or a vibrating sound/motor on sound (like the G sound). 

When working on the P sound I use a specific physical cue to help the child “see” and “feel” what the sound is like…….the cue I often use during therapy works just like this (and remember your child’s speech and language pathologist may have one that works better for your child and elicits the sound more effectively).  Use the cue that works best for you and your child.

Okay, now back to the cue:  Make a fist with your hand and then open up your fingers as fast as you can.  While doing this action, produce the P sound.  Have your child watch you and then help her to do the same with her hand.

Tactile Cue:

You can also have your child feel the puff of air that comes out of your mouth when you make the sound.  That gives her a tactile cue….she feels the air on her hand.  I find in therapy that the more cues that I give a child, the easier it will be for her to make the sound.

Verbal Cue:  Be sure to give her a verbal cue-this means that you are modeling the sound for her so that she can hear the correct pronunciation of the sound.  You can produce the sound in different vowel combinations.  Once she is able to make the sound, try it with different vowel combinations such as the following: Pa, pa, pa.  Pe, pe, pe.  Po, po, po and Pi, Pi Pi.

Melodic cue: When saying the sounds be sure to put a little bit of melody to what you are saying….music is on the right side of the brain and language is on the left.  When we tap into the right and left side at the same time…it makes it easier for your child to say the sound.  I often give parents the bologna example.  If you can’t remember how to spell bologna don’t you sing the bologna song????  B O L O G N A.

Fun tip for P: Hold a tissue in front of your child’s mouth….about an inch and a half away….ask her make the P sound……when she makes the P sound…..she should be able to see that her puff of air made the tissue move.  I also do this with small colorful scarves.

WORKSHEET FOR INITIAL P WORDS: INITIALPWORDS

Here is another link for initial P words…initial_p_2

A special thanks to www.speakingofspeech.com    The initial /p/ Cards for playing Memory and Go Fish.  Contributed by Sara Behncke.

 

 

 

HOW TO TEACH THE S SOUND WHEN IN A CLUSTER:

 

This strategy is specifically for when the S sound is in a cluster-which means two consonants together.  For example: star, stop, steak, stick.  When I work on S clusters I start off to see if the child is stimulable for the S sound in isolation.  That means can the child produce just by itself.  If your child can not produce the S sound in isolation-for me I like to see the child making that sound first in isolation (that means the sound by itself-you can ask your child to produce the snake sound to cue her on how the sound “sounds”).  I call the S sound the snake sound…..so that she remembers that’s what it sounds like.  Remember the more cues you give your child, the easier it will be for her.

Okay…..now once you have the S sound I actually treat cluster words as a sound and then the rest of the word.  What I mean by that is….I have the child make the snake sound…then a very slight pause…..and then produce the rest of the word.  I always am sure to keep my words in groups.  That means I do ST cluster words together….such as: steak, star, stick and stop.  I would NOT do: steak, slip, snack, smart.  That would be too confusing.  Now if your child is having difficulty producing the sound that follows the snake sound S-that brings up some more challenges…so you can reply to this post if I have not yet covered it.

Okay….so your child produced the snake sound….now have her produce the rest of the word.  Remember there is a half second (about) pause between the snake sound and the rest of the word.  The pause makes it easier on her with regard to the motor planning pieces of making the sound.  This means by treating it almost like two different words her brain has less demands with regard to how the sound is made. Keep practicing until you think she is ready to say the whole word without the pause.

Once she can say the word all by itself…meaning not in a sentence….not in a phrase…just: STEAK-then you can start in simple phrases…..always being sure to start off with the target word.  This makes it easier for her to plan out how she is going to say the word.  For example you could say: steak is hot.

Next you can do in short sentences and then in longer sentences.

Visual Cue/Physical Cue:

Finally, and very important.  The visual cue for the S sound is as follows.  Take your pointer finger, place it on your lips, as you say the snake sound move your finger out and away from your body in a long line.  This visual cue will help her to understand that S is a long continuing sound.

 

 

 

HOW TO TEACH THE SH SOUND:

 

Practice the speech sound: Long E….when you make this sound the sides of the back of the tongue are closed against the upper molars, the middle to front portion of the tongue is raised high, nearly touching the palate and alveolar ridge (bump behind your teeth), while the tip of the tongue touches lightly behind the lower front teeth.  Basically….your tongue is in almost the same position it needs to be in for the SH sound…..so let’s shape the Long E sound…into the SH sound……

I ask the little one to make the Long E sound and then make a kiss ….as she is moving to a pucker….ask her to blow……these cues work really well…and will give the little one a clear understanding of where their tongue needs to go.  As she is blowing while in the pucker position…with her tongue raised high…you should hear the SH sound.

 

Have your LO practice saying these phrases:

 

Kiss you

Miss you

When you say: kiss you. kiss you. kiss you. kiss you (really fast)…the S sound in Kiss and the Y sound in You…shape into the SH sound!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!  So easy to do.

Do the same for Miss you!

 

One last tip:    

 

This visual really works to help elicit the SH sound….very often young children have heard and seen their parents use this cue to keep their little one quiet!

 

Please click on this link for some great SH worksheets:sh_binder

And thank you to the speech and language pathologists at: www.speakingofspeech.com   PLEASE visit their website for amazing materials, resources and links.

 

 

 

 

 

HOW TO TEACH THE L SOUND

 

 

 

 

Sound emerges around 3 years of age.

Typically mastered: Girls: 5 years of age   Boys: 6 years of age

 

During production of the L sound…..the velopharyngeal port is closed…..the tip of your tongue closes with slight pressure against the alveolar ridge (the bumpy spot behind top front teeth)……and there is slight opening on both sides of the tongue.  Voice escapes around the tongue and out of the oral cavity.

Physical cue:

Place your right pointer finger on your shoulder….then run your finger down your arm to the tips of your fingers.  As you are doing this action produce the L sound (do NOT say lalalala)……you should just be making the L sound.  The action is showing your little one that L is a long sound that continues.

 

Tactile cue:

In order to give your little one some awareness as to where her tongues needs to go…you can use peanut butter (no allergies)…..cake frosting…..or creamed cheese.  Place the food on the bumpy spot…..and have your little one elevate her tongue to the bumpy spot.  This will give her tactile information regarding the placement of her tongue. I use this only as a tactile cue so she has awareness that her tongue needs to elevate.  You also can use a lollipop to stimulate the bump behind the teeth…give her the tactile cue..and see if she can elevate her tongue to where the lollipop is.  You can also use an electric toothbrush to give additional tactile stimulation to the bumpy spot. Now see if she is ready to practice the L sound in syllables.

 

Practice in syllables:

la la la la

le le le le

lo lo lo lo

lu lu lu lu

li li li li

Then you can practice the L sound in single words.

Practice L words in short phrases.

Next practice the L words in short sentences.

L words in longer sentences.

Then in conversational speech.

L WORDS IN THE INITIAL POSITION WORKSHEET: INITIALLWORDS

 

Following the order of articulation is important:

The order of articulation is as follows:

syllables

single words

short phrases

short sentences

longer sentences

Conversation

 

 

If she is still having trouble in production of the L sound…I use the TH sound as in that and this.  The TH sound in both of these words is the voiced TH sound…have her practice making the voiced TH sound…you should see her tongue between her top teeth and bottom teeth.  Next ask her to move her tongue back to the bump behind her teeth.  You should hear the L sound!

I also have found that humming helps to achieve the L sound…have your little one practice humming….then ask her to put her tongue on the “bump”..and hum…what you will hear is the L sound!

 

 

 

HOW TO TEACH THE B SOUND:

I just updated under the articulation page strategies for the B sound.  When teaching the B sound be sure to use  two very important cues.  When your little one is shown the physical cue and feels the tactile cue she will have an easier time in producing this sound.

The B sound is a bilabial sound…this means that you use your two lips together to make this sound.  The B sound is a non-nasal sound….this means that the air escapes out of your mouth NOT out of your nose as in the M sound.  The B sound is considered to be a STOP sound….this means that it is a sound that stops and does NOT continue as in the S sound.  The B sound is also a vibrating sound…this means that your “motor is on”…….your vocal folds are moving/vibrating.  Please refer to the initial B worksheet for simple words that you can start off with when teaching the B sound.

The B sound is also considered to be a bilabial sound-this means that your two lips work together in order to make this sound-they are making closure (lips together).  The only difference between the B sound and the P sound is that when you make the B sound your vocal folds vibrate.  Sometimes I tell the children that their “motor is on” when they make this sound.

Visual Cue/Physical Cue and Tactile Cue:

Make a fist with your hand and gently bang on a table or on your thigh while producing the B sound.   You should ask your little one to do the same.  This cue is showing your child that the B sound is a sound that stops.  The S sound is a sound that continues during production, however, the B sound stops.  So be sure to demonstrate to your little one……by gently banging you fist on a table or your thigh.

While you bang your fist on the table place your other hand on your throat so that you can feel the vibration of your vocal folds.  Now when practicing with your child-you can do the movement with your hand making the fist and have her do the same with her fist…..and while you are both doing this….have her take her own hand and feel the vibration on your throat.  Be sure to explain to her that “your motor is on”.  By saying “motor on” you are telling her that her vocal folds are moving/vibrating.  The B sound is a stop sound…..and a motor on sound.

By using the physical cue (fist banging on table) and tactile cue (feeling vibration of the vocal folds) you are telling her two things: showing her that the B sound is a sound that stops and does not continue like the S sound and that when making the B sound your vocal folds move.

Verbal Cue:

Be sure to always model the production of the target sound.  Remember this means that you are demonstrating how the B sound should sound like when produced correctly.  When she is ready….have her practice the B sound followed by vowels, then in simple words, next short phrases and then in longer sentences.

Melodic cue:

Remember to use melody as a cue when producing target words.  It is easiest when the word has more than one syllable.  Words like: baby, baker, butter, and birdie.  Be sure to change your pitch and inflection…..that will help her to say the word.

 

CLICK ON THIS LINK FOR INITIAL B WORDS WORKSHEET: INITIALBWORDS

 

Remember when practicing target sounds…be sure to follow the order of articulation process:

START OFF WITH SYLLABLES….SUCH AS: BA, BA, BA  THEN DO: BE, BE, BE. NEXT: BO, BO, BO.

I tell parents when working on syllables…be sure to use the target sound and go through all of the vowel sounds….as I started to above.  After you practice in syllables…follow the order below.

SAY THE WORD IN ISOLATION (JUST THE WORD-NOT IN A SENTENCE)

SAY THE WORD IN A SHORT PHRASE

SAY THE WORD  IN A SENTENCE

SAY THE WORD IN A LONGER SENTENCE

TRY IN REGULAR CONVERSATION

 

 

 

 

 

How to teach the TH sound

The TH sound is one of the later developing sounds in English.  We really give kids up until about 8 years of age to master this sound.  The TH sound actually is produced two different ways…..one with your voice or motor on as in:this, the, that, there…….and the other with your voice or motor off….as in think and thank.  See below for specific strategies for this sound….both voiced and unvoiced.  When I work on this sound I also start off by telling the child that this sound is called the “Bagel and Creamed Cheese Sound”…..why….because you want your little one to pretend that her teeth are the bagel and her tongue is the creamed cheese…..and that she has to spread the creamed cheese on the bagel by moving her tongue between her teeth. In my experience this description really seems to help the child to understand what she is doing with her teeth and her tongue.

 

  VOICED TH SOUND

 

Visual Cue:

The TH sound is a great sound to work on because it is so visual.  When demonstrating or modeling your child can see that you are putting your tongue between your teeth….and when they are practicing, remember it is best to use a mirror…as this provides good visual feedback.  When I work on this sound I tell the child to put their tongue between their teeth and then blow.  This is pretty simple for them to do….and they will quickly see that they are capable of making this sound.

Tactile:

Have your little one put the palm of her hand in front of her mouth while producing this sound.  This will give her tactile information….as she will feel the air on her hand.  You can have her practice the sound in isolation…which means just the TH sound.  Now remember too…this TH sound is the motor on sound….because your vocal folds are moving….as I said above….as in words such as the, this and that……so…..you can also have your little one feel the vibration on her throat….so that she receives the tactile information……if she is struggling to feel the vibration…..have her feel the vibration on your throat.

Next practice in silly syllables….such as:

the, the, the

thi, thi, thi

tha, tha, tha

tho, tho, tho,

thu, thu, thu

Your next step should be to practice in short phrases….then short sentences….and then longer sentences.

 

UNVOICED TH SOUND

This is the unvoiced TH sound….so your motor is off….which means that your vocal folds do not move….there is no vibration.  You can follow the same cues as above…the only strategy that you will NOT follow is: feeling the vibration on the back of your throat….remember with this sound…your vocal folds are not vibrating….so there is nothing to feel on the back of your throat.

TH WORDS…..SOME VOICED SOME UN-VOICED……

 

 

 

How to teach the S sound

 

Emerges between 3 and 3 1/2 years of age

Mastered between 7 and 9 years of age

Post written for AK and his mama TK

 

Strategy:

If your little one is capable of producing the T sound…I will use this sound to shape the Ssound….try this simple strategy yourself…produce the T sound repeatedly and fast…like this: TTTTTTTTTTTT….you will notice that it will sound like the S sound.  This will help your little one with placement of the sound.  Both the T sound and the S sound are made in the same spot…the little bump behind your top front teeth..(called the alveolar ridge).

Strategy:

Often times just telling your little one that the S sound is the snake sound will help them to understand what sound they are making….they typically are aware that a snake makes a hissing sound…and this cue helps them in production of the S sound.

Strategy:

Remind your little one to keep her mouth closed…and her teeth together…to prevent her tongue from protruding….ask her to make the snake sound.  I will also use this visual cue to show her that the S sound is a sound that continues:

Take your pointer finger…place at your lips….as you are making the S sound move your finger straight out away from your body…showing her that the S sound continues.

Strategy:

You can help her with positioning and production by putting your index fingers at the corners of her mouth and gently pulling them back to a retracted position (like a smile)…as she attempts to make the S sound.

Remember to start off with syllables….then simple words..then phrases…then sentences…and finally in conversation.

Hope this was helpful!

www.speakingofspeech.com (this is a great website with lots of free articulation pages you can print to work on your child’s target sound)

****”The S sound is among the most frequently misarticulated consonants, produced variously toward the TH (you will hear a lisp)…or toward the SH sound.  It is degraded by abnormal dentition and often with dentures, and is one of the first sounds affected by hearing loss.  The S sound is one of the most frequently occurring consonants in American-English speech.”

Donald R. Calvert Ph.D. Descriptive Phonetics

HOW TO TEACH THE J SOUND

dʒ

~the J sound as in Jump~

Emerges around 3 1/2 years of age

Mastered between 6 and 7 years of age

Post written for DH and her daughter

The J sound in jump is written as seen above in the international phonetic alphabet.  It has two components (despite being produced with a single impulse of breath): the D sound and the ʒ sound as in the word measure and treasure.  The ʒ sound is one of the hardest sounds to produce in English and it is the least produced sound.

The dʒ sound is very similar to its contrasting sound: the CH sound as in chop, choose, cherry & cheese.  With regard to placement both of these sounds are the same…the only difference is when you make the J sound as in jump…your vocal folds vibrate…so it is amotor on sound….the CH sound is a motor off sound…so your vocal folds do not move.

When targeting the J sound…I like to see if the child is able to make the CH sound…giving me some information about placement.  You can read more about how to produce the CH sound on my articulation page…but quickly I will tell you that the CH sound is made up of the T sound and the SH sound…(interesting to note: the contrasting sound for T is D and the contrasting sound for SH is the ʒ sound)….so very interesting to note also that the dʒ sound is made up of the D sound and the ʒ sound).  I had a mama on FB write that her child substitutes the SH sound for the J sound..which does make sense to me….she is deleting one component of the sound…the D sound…and then making a substitution for the ʒ sound with ʒ’s contrasting sound: the SH sound!  Hope that makes sense to you guys…it of course is very interesting to me.

Okay…enough about placement…and contrasting sounds.  How do we teach the J sound?

If she is capable of producing the SH sound…encourages her to make this sound…and turn her “motor on“….to shape the sh sound into the ʒ sound.  But remember we still need the other component of the J sound…which will of course be the D sound.

Have her make the D sound…and then follow it with the ʒ sound…you would want her to produce the d then the ʒ sound repeatedly and fast….remember this sound is going to be a bit more challenging..because of the fact that the ʒ sound is one of the hardest sounds to produce.

Tactile Cues:

Place your thumb in one corner of your mouth and your index finger in the other corner.  As you make the J sound…gently pinch your lips together. Your child should do the same.

Have your little one feel the vibration of the sound..by feeling your throat…remember the J sound is a motor on sound….so your vocal folds are moving.

*****Practicing words such as: Lunge, bungee & grunge….can help with placement…when you say these words…right before you make the J sound at the end of these words…you will make the N sound…and the N sound has the same placement as the first component in the J sound…remember it starts off with the D sound….and the N sound and D sound are made in the same place!

Hope this was helpful.

Be sure to follow the order of articulation…syllables, words, phrases, sentences and then conversation.

Two great links for free worksheets: www.mommyspeechtherapy.com  andwww.speakingofspeech.com

 

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